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THE DISPERSION OF GREEK EDUCATION     71

the very same topics which they discuss in tame and bloodless
phraseology."*

The antithesis here presented between knowledge as an
individual pursuit and knowledge as a means to public ends—
in effect, between Greek philosophy and Roman oratory—
is even more sharply stated by Quintilian. While admitting
with Cicero that the orator needs to know philosophy and making
provision for training the future orator in the relevant branches
of the subject, he expressly denies that he has any wish
to make the orator a philosopher. " No other mode of life,"
he says, " has withdrawn itself further from the duties of civil
life and all that concerns an orator. Which of the philosophers
ever frequented courts of justice, or distinguished himself in public
' assemblies ? Which of them ever engaged in the management
of political affairs, on which most of them have given such earnest
precepts ? But I should desire the orator, whom I am trying to
form, to be a kind of Roman wise man, who may prove himself a
true statesman, not by private discussions but by personal
experience and efforts in public life."f F°r Quintilian, as for
Cato, whom he quotes, the ideal orator is "the good man
skilled in speech" ; and he thinks no higher human type is
conceivable. Man, he points out in another passage, is superior
to the animals in virtue and in speech; and therefore his
distinctive excellence consists as much in eloquence (oratio) as
in reason (ratio). On this account he regards the orator as the
only complete man, and the philosopher by comparison as
essentially inferior.

In his treatise on the making of the perfect orator, who is
the ideal man of the Roman educator, Quintilian gives a full
account of the course to be followed by the pupil from the time
he begins to speak and gets his first lessons in early childhood
till he acquires perfect mastery of the grand art. As the course
is just that of the best Roman education, there is no need to go
over it in detail here. The real interest of the book is not in the
information it provides, valuable as that is, but in the fact that
it is a description and discussion of the educational practice of
Rome from within by the most successful teacher of his time.
Considered in this way, the most striking feature of the book is
the view it gives of the educational process as it concerns the pupil*
* De Orator*, i, 13.              f xii, 6,7.